Roman-Lycian Friendship and Reciprocal Military Alliance 46 AD
The following inscription is from a bronze plaque (dated July 24, 46 AD) from Lycia, now in the Schøyen Collection, the largest private manuscript collection formed in the 20th century, located mainly in Oslo and London.
This treaty between the Lycians and the
Romans is the only one of its kind that has survived in its original form;
the one held by the Schøyen Collection is one of the two official copies,
the copy posted in a temple on the Forum in Rome was destroyed by fire, as
were all other copies posted there. This one was posted in the Forum
of the Lycian capital and came through the centuries intact.
Treaty of Friendship and Reciprocal Military Alliance Between the Roman People and the Lycian Federation, Incuding Criminal "Laws of Caesar", International Law and the Law of Jurisdiction,
Divided Into 9 Sections:
Friendship, alliance and peace both by land and sea in perpetuity "Let the Lycians observe the power and preeminence of the Romans as is proper in all circumstances."
Each party agrees not to help or support the other's enemies financially or with ships or weapons.
- Each party agrees to help the other by
all possible means if it is attacked.
- If anyone is arrested importing or
exporting contraband goods, they are to be charged to the highest
appropriate magistrate of the two parties. "What is sacred by law, that
shall be sacred, other goods shall not be."
- If a Roman citizen is accused in Lyia
murder or a capital crime, be shall be judged in Rome according to his
own laws, and nowhere else. But if a Lycian citizen is accused, he
shall be judged by his own laws and nowhere else.
- If any Roman should be engaged in a
dispute with a Lycian, let him be judged in Lycia according to the laws
of the Lycians, and nowhere else, but if a Lycian is brought to court by
a Roman, the case shall be heard by whatever magistrate the disputants
agree to approach, so that the matter may be safely and justly dealt
- No person may be taken as a surety.
Provisions are made for the return of Romans or Lycians taken captive in
war to their own countries, and for the restoration of captured horses,
slaves or ships.
- Territorial clauses relating to named
cities, villages, forts, harbors and territories, which have been
restored to the Lycian Federation, are to belong to them, "Just as Gaius
Ceasar the Emperor judged and the Senate passed a resolution and jointly
confirmed this. This is secured and guaranteed by the law of Caesar."
- Both parties agree to abide by the terms
of this oath and the treaty. If both parties agree details of the
agreement may be amended.
This oath has been taken by Lucius Billienus, son of Gaius of the tribe Velina; concluded by Lucius Farbicius, Licinus Son of Lucius, of the tribe Menenia, for the Lycian Federation has sworn Aristippus son of Philetaerus, Delegate, concluded by Adeimantos son of Adeimantos, Delegate, present: Naukrates son of Naukrates, Delegate.
MS in Greek on bronze, Lycia, Turkey, 24 July 46 BC, 1 bronze plaque, 88x53 cm, single column (80x50 cm), 78 lines in Greek capitals, within a frame of double lines.